1.Dr. Vaitheeswaran Thiruvengadam, Project Manager, LuLu Fish Farming, International University of East Africa, Kampala, Uganda, East Africa.
Pavitraa V, III Year, B.Tech., Biotechnoloy, , SASTRA University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.
Akila Priya M, Assistant Professor and Head, Department of Mathematics, Cauvery College of Engineering Technology, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.
Mustapha ABA, Aquaculture Scientific Expert, Fish Nutrition, Morocco.
A small pelagic cyprinid fish is commercially important silver fish Rastrineobola argentea, (Pellegrin, 1904) locally known as Mukene, in Jinja District is located in the Southeastern part of Uganda. To investigate and suitable of light sources (lamps or bulbs) for sustainable harvest of Mukene (Fig. 1) from Jinja region, Uganda. A very rich a nutritional values such as vitamin A and E and fatty oils that prevent poor vision and promote good skin texture. Protein rich diets in Omega-3 can result in increased learning ability, problem-solving skills, focus, memory. In local markets, 100 gramme packs of Nutri- Mukene like sliverfish (Local freshwater sardine) costs between Uganda Shs1500 to Shs3,500 (one USD$).
The fisheries sector is one of the important subsectors of South-Eastern part of Jinja, Uganda economy. Fisheries and Aquaculture sector provides substantial employment, income, livelihood, foreign earnings and revenue to the country. In addition to providing the protein-rich food to the local populations, aquaculture also can generate employment and valuable foreign exchange to the country in a big way. Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world by surface area after the Caspian Sea, covering about 69,000 km2 in East Africa (Crul, 1995). It has a maximum depth of 84 m, a mean depth of 40 m and a shoreline of about 3,500 km. The lake is shared by Kenya (6% of surface area), Uganda (43%) and Tanzania (51%), with a drainage basin covering about 236,000 km2 that extends to Rwanda and Burundi (Natugonza et al., 2016; Nyamweya et al., 2018). The lake supports a valuable artisanal and commercial fishery and is a source of food, employment and water for domestic, industrial and irrigation use, as well as having a good potential for tourism (Abila, 2000; Njiru, Waithaka, Muchiri, van der Knaap, & Cowx, 2005; Ntiba, Kudoja, & Mukasa, 2001; Odongkara, Abila amd Onyango, 2005). An increasing human population and high exploitation rate have threatened the health of Lake Victoria and its resources. From about 1960, the population increased dramatically from about 10 to more than 40 million people within about 100 km from the lake shoreline, with their activities negatively impacting the lake and its resources (PRB 2009; Yongo, Keizire, & Mbilinyi, 2005). The supply of fish per capita has however, steadily fallen due to high population growth against declining fish production and this is a real threat to food and nutrition security in Uganda. Fish and fish food highly nutritious, rich in essential micronutrients, minerals, essential fatty acids and proteins, and represents an excellent supplement to nutritionally deficient cereal-based diets. Fish and fish products constitute a major source of income, food and recreation in the global economy. Because of their contribution to total global food output, and to the number of people involved in fishing, freshwater and marine capture fisheries play a substantial role in the uplift of economy of coastal rural population. The majority of the world’s fishery resources is being subjected to overfishing as stocks are reduced to below safe levels. In Uganda this fish is a major contributor to the national fish catch for local consumption and exports. Nile perch constitutes up to 96% of the fish exports to premium markets, 40% of the exports to region markets, and 30% of the fish consumed locally. A small pelagic cyprinid fish is commercially important silver fish Rastrineobola argentea, locally known as Mukene, in Jinja District is located in the Southeastern part of Uganda. Jinja District has an area of 767.7sq Km of which 701.9 sq km is land and the rest (65.8 Sq km) is covered by water bodies. Jinja district represents the national natural water endowment, with a potential of fisheries resources that can be fully tapped from its diverse water resources, including the major Lake Victoria, the Nile River, and the network of other minor rivers, streams and swamps; that offer very suitable opportunities for the development and promotion of fish production as an enterprise in the district. FAO (2015) was estimated that 140 377 Ugandans were involved in fisheries and aquaculture sectors employment in 2015, of which 116 213 were engaged in inland waters fishing and 24 434 in fish farming. The annual per capita consumption of fish was estimated at about 12.5 kg in 2013, higher than the African average of 10.1 kg. At the regional and continental levels, the lowest per capita fish consumption occurs in Africa, where it peaked at 10.5 kg in 2014 and then declined to 9.9 kg in 2017. Low fish consumption in sub-Saharan Africa is the result of a number of interconnected factors, including among others: population increasing at a higher rate than food fish supply; stagnation of fish production because of pressure on capture fisheries resources; and a poorly developed aquaculture sector (FAO, 2020). The Eastern Africa region is projected to realize increased fish consumption from 4.80 kg in 2013 to 5.49 kg by 2022. Rising population growth and income levels imply that the region will need 2.49 million tonnes of fish to fill the demand–supply gaps (Kevin Obiero et al., 2019). Nicholas Otieno Outa et al., (2020) has reviewed that the world’s largest inland freshwater fisheries, providing employment and food to millions around the lake and beyond (Darwall, Smith, Lowe, & Vié, 2005). It exhibits a total annual fish catch of about a million tonnes (LVFO, 2009), with Tanzania contributing 66.6%, Uganda 18.6% and Kenya 14.8% (Turyaheebwa, 2014). The value of the catch at the beach level is estimated to be more than US$ 550 Million, with an export value of US$ 260 Million. Mukene contains phosphorous which aids brain and bone development.
To investigate and suitable of light sources (lamps or bulbs) for sustainable harvest of Mukene from Jinja, Uganda. A very rich a nutritional values such as vitamin A and E and fatty oils that prevent poor vision and promote good skin texture. Protein rich diets in Omega-3 can result in increased learning ability, problem-solving skills, focus, memory.
Fig 1. Mukene, Rastrineobola argentea, (Pellegrin, 1904)