Shrimp farming is supported by fast-growth and high-resistance genotypes. Protein requirement is important for shrimp perfomance. Fishmeal is the main source, but their limited production increase feed formulation costs for aquaculture. This study has for aim to evaluated the effect of genotype and protein source on performance of two shrimp genotypes.
A group of researchers concludes that genotype, diet and their interactions influence the performance of vannamei shrimp. The research is useful for improving genetic selection programs, reducing feeding costs and designing feeding strategies.
In marine shrimp aquaculture, the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most important species as its production represents 53% of the world total. Similarly, in shrimp production, growth and survival characteristics determine the profitability of aquaculture operations.
Shrimp post-larvae production laboratories generate fast-growing genotypes based on a two-step selection process, where weight and growth are taken into account; and high-resistance genotypes with Ecuadorian broodstock. However, genetic improvement programs do not take into account genotypic characterization and protein requirements.
Several studies have evaluated the effect of diets containing soybean meal and/or soy protein concentrate on the growth performance of marine shrimp, leading to the identification of different levels of fishmeal replacement. The effect of shrimp genotype and protein source was also evaluated, but no significant differences in growth performance were found due to the genetic relationship of shrimp genotypes.
Scientists from the National Council of Science and Technology and the Sonora Institute of Technology, led by Jose Reyes Gonzalez-Galaviz, evaluated diets formulated with alternative protein sources to fishmeal in different genotypes of farmed shrimp to help determine the optimal feed treatment for better growth and efficient feed utilization; in this sense, the objective of the study was to determine the influence of genotype and protein source on the performance of white shrimp.
They collected postlarvae from two genotypes of vannamei shrimp: a) fast-growing shrimp, and b) highly disease-resistant shrimp, which are currently produced in the shrimp postlarvae production laboratories in Sonora, Mexico.
« Dietary protein is one of the main factors influencing shrimp performance and the cost of feed formulated for farmed shrimp. On the other hand, protein requirements for shrimp growth are influenced by size, body weight, farming system, stocking density, environmental factors and the biological value of protein sources, » the researchers say.
Shrimp genotype and performance
« Our study revealed a significant genotype-feeding interaction in growth performance parameters. These results suggest that the protein requirement and resulting growth performance of L. vannamei shrimp were influenced by genotype, » the researchers reported.
They note that shrimp genotypes fed diets containing different protein sources had differentiated growth responses. « Growth performance parameters of the fast-growing genotype such as final weight, survival, final biomass, weight gain and specific growth rate decreased when the shrimp were fed diets containing vegetable protein. While the high-resistance genotype had the same growth performance with both types of feed » differed.
Genotypes influence performance parameters, while protein sources tend to affect feed efficiency. On the other hand, the fast-growing genotype needs feeds based on animal protein, while the high-resistance genotype can be fed with feeds based on vegetable protein without affecting shrimp performance.
The research developed can be useful to improve genetic selection programs, reduce feeding costs for the shrimp industry and design feeding strategies for shrimp based on their genotypes.
The study was funded by the National Science and Technology Council and the Coordination of Management and Academic Support at the Sonora Institute of Technology.