This article examines the supporting role of research in the development of marine aquaculture in the aquaculture-producing countries of North Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. Research plays a significant role not only in the support of the development of the sector, but also in the evolution toward sustainable aquaculture practices and a better integrated management of this activity. This analysis was conducted as part of the Aquamed project whose main objective was to create a multi-stakeholder platform (institutional decision makers, producers, researchers, NGOs, etc.) to strengthen cooperation and stimulate innovation for sustainable aquaculture in the Mediterranean. In particular, the Aquamed project aimed at an exploration of forms of collaboration through the identification of sub-groups of countries whose similarity of situations or challenges could help promote dialogue. The study of aquaculture and research in the countries reveals the contrasted situations between Egypt and the three western North African countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia). The analysis of research capabilities was carried out on the basis of several indicators, which were compiled from a survey among the relevant main institutes in the various countries, as well as from bibliometric research on the publications produced in the field of aquaculture. Beyond the differences identified among the countries, the analysis emphasizes the similarity of the challenges and the benefits of strengthening.